Skin is the largest organ of the body covering it from all external damages and pathogens.
It makes an important role in maintaining the proper temperature for the body, permits sensations and helps in absorption of medicines and aesthetic products. It also controls water loss and synthesis of vitamin D.
Sometimes the skin can play some other role also in the social life of a person, than its biological functions. As Most of the times one person is described as how they appear, the skin becomes identity of the person itself. Its health and freshness play important parts in self esteem and confidence.
Skin is an ever-changing organ with many specialized cells and structures.
It has 3 main layers, each has different functions in maintaining the health of the whole skin.
EPIDERMIS-This is the top most layer of skin, made up of epithelial cells. It is without any blood vessels and mainly helps in protection, absorption of nutrients, and homeostasis. It has the immunologically active Langerhans cells to fight against pathogens. The deepest part of the epidermis contains Melanocytes which determine the colour of the skin.
This layer determines the colour and appearance of the skin.
The upper layer of the epidermis contains only dead and damaged cells, which will be shedding off in every 10-15days naturally, paving way for more epidermal stem cells to multiply and grow upwards If this is not happening it will lead to pigmentation and blemishes. Here the first liquid phase of stem cell peel helps to remove the dead cells with the help of epidermal lysing factors
Epidermis itself is divided into 5 groups. From the bottom level to top they are described as below
- Stratum Basale – It is the deepest layer. Contains mainly proliferating keratinocytes which can be considered as the stem cells of the epidermis and which move to upper layer . A gap made by a Wound on the skin will be repaired and filled by the migration of keratinocytes to the site. This layer contains Melanocytes also.
The cream phase of stem cell peel will stimulate this layer to produce more epidermal stem cells to cover the external damaged area.
- Stratum spinosum - The immunologically active Langerhan’s cells are located in this layer and keratinocytes migrate to upper layers.
The Stem cell peel will stimulate the immune cells to fight against infections and pathogens.
- Stratum Granulosum – The keratinocytes contain granules filled with protein and covered with hydrophobic lipids. They loss their nuclei and produce lamellar bodies during their migration to upper layer.
This layer helps in hydration and protection.
As the Stem cell peel helps in stimulation of more protein and lipid synthesis, it will make the skin more hydrated and protected.
- Stratum Lucidum – This layer has clear, translucent dead cells. It is mostly seen in palms and feet.
- Stratum Corneum – It is the upper most layer, made of dead, flat skin cells that shed about every 2 weeks. Cells of this layer contain a dense network of keratin, a protein, that helps in most of the barrier functions and regulation of water loss from the skin .
But the accumulation of the cells will lead to more dead and destructed cells on the skin surface which makes the skin pigmented and dull ,along with appearance of lines on it.
The stem cell peel will be removing the dead layer with the help of epidermal lysing factors.
DERMIS-The dermis is the middle layer of skin, that contains blood and lymph vessels, hair follicles, nerve endings and glands, which produce sweat and sebum. This layer serves to give elasticity to skin as collagen and elastin are arranged diffusely here.
When the collagen losses its natural elasticity due to any reasons, it first affects dermis, to form wrinkles and folds . Then these appear on the epidermal layer, as lines, sagging and wrinkles
The stem cell peel and cream act on the dermis to stimulate and initiate more collagen multiplication. This will help the dermis to regain its tonicity and to improve the folds and wrinkles.
HYPODERMIS-The hypodermis is the innermost and thickest layer of the skin. It helps in storing fats, known as adipocytes.
Each layer also contains connective tissue with collagen fibers to give support and elastin fibers to provide flexibility and strength
Aging And Damages To The Skin
Skin will get thinner and loss its elasticity as one is getting aged. Skin changes are related to environmental factors, genetic makeup, nutrition, stress, medicines, alcohol, smoking and other factors.
The deeper layers get slow in division and they loss their integrity due to low collagen and elastin. Oil-secreting glands and fat cells shrink and skin becomes dry and scaly. The capacity to repair and regenerate declines with age.
Sunlight is the major and strongest factor leading to premature aging and age spots
the Ultra Violet A and B Rays affect the skin resulting in sunburn, pigmentation and wrinkles. UVA affect the deeper layers and UVB affect the outer layers. They damage collagen and elastin. This results in production of large amounts of enzymes called metalloproteinases which breakdown collagen to form disorganized collagen scars, eventually leading to wrinkles.
On cloudy days and even though we are indore, the UV rays can penetrate clouds and windows. The oxidants or radicals are also increased by sunlight leading to destruction of the cells.
Stress and worry causes frowning or serious expression on face which will give face will lead the muscles to become sagged, due to continuous using
Lack of exercise:
As the muscles are not getting used and blood flow is not up to meet the necessary, the sedentary life contributes much more to the aging skin
This can help aging process by increasing radicals in the body and depleting the vitamin c.
Lack of sleep
Too little sleep makes the cells tired and this appears on the face, with dark circles and bags under the eyes, and sagging skin.
Lack of Nutrition
As Skin is constantly being regenerated requires adequate amounts of protein, carbohydrate, oxygen and fats to fuel the high turnover of cells. When proper nutrition is not there, the skin shows the effects as signs of sging.
Also, Air pollution, mainly Ozone, which destructs Vitamin E and increases radicals also makes reason for aging.
Some hormonal imbalance also lead to premature signs of aging.